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A Perspective on Freud’s Theories in Relation to Self-harming Behaviour

Guan Teik Ee, Poh Li Lau

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : self-harming behaviour, id, ego, superego, homoeostasis

Abstract : Self-harming is intentional self-destructive behaviour, although it is not necessarily suicidal. It is common not only in the West, but also in oriental countries like Malaysia. Many people question why adolescents harm themselves intentionally nowadays? What actually motivates them to do so? This conceptual paper explains the reasons behind such actions based on Freud’s theories. According to Freud, the constructs of id, ego and superego interact to form a person’s character. The id is our instinctual drive that ignores consequences when it acts, while the ego is our common sense faculty, responsible for working out proper plans that are acceptable to society. The superego is moralistic; its role is to prevent the id from prevailing when it thinks that it is wrong. In daily life, individuals strive to achieve homoeostasis whenever pain occurs through the distribution of these energies. As adolescence is a stage of overwhelming experience, in order to release the tension that arises, the id leads us into instinctual desire and problematic behaviour, such as self-harming. It is only through rigorous training that the ego can function well and overcome the driving force of the id to avoid any problematic behaviour. When the superego leads, adolescents will be seen as rigid and cannot tolerate any flaws in their life. In order to have a balanced and healthy personality, adolescents need to have a good blend of these three constructs. Thus, understanding what lies behind an action can enable us to have a deeper understanding of why adolescents engage in self-harming behaviour.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Analisis Perbandingan Orientasi Matlamat Atlet Lelaki Bawah Lapan Belas Tahun Pedalaman Sabah

Joseph Nandu dan Hasnol Noordin

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : orientasi matlamat, orientasi ego, orientasi tugasan

Abstract : Pencapaian seseorang atlet dalam sukan olahraga dapat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor psikologi seperti motivasi, orientasi matlamat, kekuatan mental dan persepsi kognitif. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk melihat perbezaan faktor psikologi terhadap orientasi matlamat, subskala orientasi ego dan orientasi tugasan antara atlet acara balapan dan acara padang. Peserta seramai enam puluh empat orang atlet lelaki bawah lapan belas tahun telah dipilih untuk menyertai kajian dan mereka terdiri daripada atlet bahagian pedalaman Sabah. Instrumen yang telah digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire (TEOSQ) yang telah diterjemahkan. Hasil dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan terhadap orientasi matlamat, subskala orientasi ego dan orientasi tugasan di antara atlet acara balapan dan padang. Dapatan kajian ini adalah selaras dengan Teori Persepsi Kebolehan Nicholls kerana asas komponen ini berpusatkan kepada penguasaan sesuatu kemahiran ataupun tugasan

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Guideline To A Happy Marriage: An Instrumental Case Study On The Perspectives of Persons With Visual Disability

Teoh Jia Long, Muhammad Idris Bullare @ Bahari

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : marriage, happiness, case study, persons with visual disability

Abstract : The purpose of this investigation is to understand the strategies involved to improve or maintain marital happiness among married persons with visual disability. This study has adopted the instrumental case study design (Stake, 1995). A total of 10 married persons with visual disability with varying conditions have participated in this investigation. This study has utilized the qualitative content analysis as a method of data analysis. A total of five themes related to the strategies to improve or maintain marital happiness of married persons with visual disabilities have been constructed namely: 1) assisting the partner, 2) establishing healthy interaction, 3) being modest, 4) seeking divine intervention, and 5) avoid comparison. This study will enable visually disabled persons, families, and the society to understand how to improve or maintain happiness in marriage. Persons with disabilities would like to be independent, to contribute to society, as well as having the same desires as the non-disabled thus, eliminate the stigma towards persons with disabilities.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Motif Peserta Dalam Sukan Triathlon

Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin, Zakiah Noordin

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : motivasi, triathlon, psikologi sukan

Abstract : Sukan Triathlon telah menjadi semakin popular dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini dan adalah antara sukan yang paling pesat berkembang di dunia. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji motif penglibatan dalam acara Triathlon. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah soal selidik Motivations of Marathoners Scales (? = .71 hingga .86). Ia ditadbir kepada 120 peserta (min umur 37.19 ± 7.27 tahun, BMI 22.76 ± 4.21, 60 lelaki dan 60 wanita) yang mengambil bahagian dalam Putrajaya International Triathlon 2019. Statistik deskriptif dan inferensi (ujian-t dan Anova sehala) digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Motif psikologi, kesihatan fizikal dan pencapaian adalah pada tahap sangat tinggi tetapi motif sosial hanya pada tahap tinggi. Tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara jantina kecuali motif keahlian, pencapaian matlamat peribadi dan kehidupan bermakna. Nilai min motif keahlian, pencapaian matlamat peribadi dan kehidupan bermakna wanita adalah lebih tinggi berbanding lelaki. Terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara kategori acara kecuali motif pencapaian matlamat peribadi dan persaingan. Terdapat perbezaan motif keprihatinan berat badan yang signifikan di antara indeks jisim badan (BMI). Kesimpulannya adalah penyelidikan pada masa hadapan perlu mengkaji keberkesanan penglibatan motivasi dalam meningkatkan penyertaan dalam acara Triathlon.

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DISCLAIMER

The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Visual, Tactile and Auditory Memory: Any Difference Between Students?

Ling Leh Qing, Kellin Wong Kai Xin, Lim Chin Fen, Treshia Tapui, Toh Bing Zhao, and Chua Bee Seok

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : visual, tactile and auditory memory, gender, student

Abstract : To recall objects depends on how we receive information in our daily life. There is three-way to receive information: hear, see or touch. Each way react differently to memory performance. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the differences between auditory, visual and tactile information in the memory performance. Besides, this study also aimed to find out the differences between gender and field of study in their memory performance. A total of 60 sciences and social sciences students in university (30 females and 30 males) involved in this study. The tool to record the memory performance was namely A Message from Your Brain. The result has shown that visual and tactile information were more efficient than auditory information in the memory performance. The finding also shows there was a significant difference between male and female students in auditory memory. Females were outperformed in auditory memory performance compared to males. The result also shows that there was a significant difference between science students and social sciences students on visual memory performance. Students from the sciences field have better performance in visual and tactile memory than social sciences students.

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DISCLAIMER

The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Strategi Daya Tindak Mangsa Banjir: Kajian Kes Bencana Banjir Di Kelantan Disember 2014

Noremy Md Akhir,Rosmah Ahmad, Azlinda Azman Nur Hafizah Md Akhir

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : strategi daya tindak, mangsa banjir, bencana banjir, Kelantan, Disember 2014

Abstract : Pada Disember 2014, telah berlaku bencana banjir di Kelantan yang dianggap sebagai banjir terbesar dan terburuk di negeri tersebut selepas peristiwa banjir pada 1967. Kesan daripada banjir besar yang berlaku, mangsa banjir bukan sahaja mengalami kemusnahan fizikal seperti kemusnahan harta benda secara total malah turut berdepan dengan isu psikologikal. Berdasarkan tinjauan kajian terdahulu mendapati, strategi daya tindak merupakan faktor daya tahan yang dapat melindungi mangsa banjir daripada berhadapan dengan masalah psikologikal yang lebih kritikal. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk meneroka strategi daya tindak yang digunakan oleh mangsa banjir yang kehilangan harta benda secara total kesan daripada banjir yang berlaku. Bagi menjalankan kajian ini, seramai 28 orang mangsa banjir yang mengalami kehilangan harta benda secara total telah dipilih dengan menggunakan kaedah persampelan secara bertujuan. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif di mana kajian kes dipilih sebagai reka bentuk kajian. Pemilihan informan adalah secara bertujuan dengan menggunakan kriteria inklusif. Dua sesi temu bual secara mendalam telah dijalankan secara berasingan sehingga data mencapai tahap ketepuan. Data yang diperoleh kemudiannya dianalisis menggunakan kaedah tematik analisis. Hasil daripada kajian yang dijalankan mendapati, empat strategi daya tindak yang digunakan oleh informan iaitu strategi daya tindak berfokuskan masalah, daya tindak berfokuskan emosi, daya tindak berasaskan agama dan daya tindak maladaptif. Informan yang menggunakan strategi daya tindak yang berkesan seperti daya tindak berfokuskan masalah, berfokuskan emosi dan daya tindak berasaskan agama secara positif telah menunjukkan daya tahan yang tinggi dan seterusnya membantu mereka dalam mencapai kesejahteraan fizikal dan psikososial selepas banjir. Walau bagaimanapun, informan yang gagal menggunakan strategi daya tindak yang berkesan seperti daya tindak berasaskan agama secara negatif dan daya tindak maladaptif dilihat mempunyai daya tahan yang rendah seterusnya memerlukan program intervensi khusus yang dapat membantu mereka dalam mencapai kefungsian sosial selepas banjir.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Alam Sekitar Sebagai Terapi Alternatif Kesihatan Mental

Haliza Abdul Rahman

Volume : Vol 3

Publication Date : 2019-12-31

Keywords : kesihatan mental, penyakit, rawatan, terapi alam sekitar, ketenangan

Abstract : Gangguan pada fungsi otak yang boleh menyebabkan perubahan kepada proses pemikiran, perasaan dan tingkah laku seseorang yang seterusnya mengakibatkan gangguan untuk menjalani aktiviti seharian dengan baik dikenali sebagai penyakit mental. Pada tahun 2020, penyakit mental yang merupakan antara lima penyakit utama yang menyebabkan hilang upaya di seluruh dunia akan menduduki tangga kedua. Kajian Kesihatan dan Morbiditi Kebangsaan 2017 mendedahkan, 27 peratus kalangan penduduk Malaysia yang berumur 16 tahun ke atas mengalami masalah kesihatan mental. Masalah kesihatan mental dalam kalangan anak-anak muda di negara ini juga disifatkan sebagai membimbangkan, yang mana, daripada kira-kira 5.5 juta remaja, seorang daripada lima anak muda mengalami kemurungan. Maka, di seluruh dunia, tarikh 10 Oktober diraikan setiap tahun sebagai Hari Kesihatan Mental Sedunia bertujuan meningkatkan kesedaran umum terhadap kesihatan mental. Selain rawatan melalui ubat-ubatan, alam semula jadi mampu berperanan serta bertindak sebagai terapi terhadap permasalahan kesihatan mental yang semakin meningkat dalam kalangan masyarakat. Hal ini kerana alam semula jadi dengan suasana dan sifatnya dapat membantu mengurangkan tekanan, meningkatkan perhatian, menggalakkan kreativiti serta meningkatkan harga diri seseorang individu. Justeru, ia mampu memberi ketenangan hati dan minda seterusnya berupaya merawat permasalahan kesihatan mental dalam kalangan masyarakat. Maka, terapi alam sekitar harus diperluaskan sebagai kaedah rawatan alternatif untuk mereka yang mengalami masalah mental.

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DISCLAIMER

The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Marital Happiness of Married Visually Disabled Persons: An Intrinsic Case Study

Teoh Jia Long and Muhammad Idris Bullare @ Bahari

Volume : vol 2

Publication Date : 2018-12-22

Keywords : marital happiness, marriage, visually disabled persons

Abstract : This paper aims to explore the sources of marital happiness among married visually disabled persons. The driving force of this study is the lack of theoretical and scholarly insights regarding the happiness of visually disabled spouses especially in Malaysia. This study will apply the qualitative methodology which utilizes the case study design (Stake, 1995). One respondent was interviewed in this investigation. Eight themes that best represent marital happiness of visually disabled person were constructed: responsibility, acceptance, self-efficacy, achievements, access to transportation, spirituality, sense of togetherness, and financial stability. Through this research, proper understanding of marital happiness among married visually disabled persons could be obtained hence, serving as the guideline of policy making to ensure well-being in such population. In this sense, the study of marital happiness among such population is also crucial to expand the plethora of knowledge in the field of positive psychology.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Pengaruh Modal Psikologi Ke Atas Pencapaian Pelajar Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam

Beddu Salam Baco dan Mohd. Nazri Ismail

Volume : vol 2

Publication Date : 2018-12-22

Keywords : modal psikologi, pencapaian akademik, prestasi umum

Abstract : Modal psikologi terdiri daripada keyakinan diri, harapan, optimis dan ketahanan didapati mempunyai pengaruh ke atas pencapaian seseorang. Modal psikologi adalah konstruk tahap tinggi yang diaplikasikan dalam konteks pekerjaan diandaikan mempengaruhi prestasi di tempat kerja. Kajian ini memanjangkan konsep modal psikologi dalam latar akademik. Tujuan kajian ini adalah menyediakan bukti empirik pengaruh modal psikologi ke atas pencapaian pelajar prasiswazah institusi pengajian tinggi awam. Kajian dijalankan ke atas individu sebagai unit analisis. Seramai 400 orang pelajar prasiswazah institusi pengajian tinggi awam di Sabah, Malaysia telah terlibat dalam kajian ini. Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) telah digunakan untuk mengumpul data. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk menguji pengaruh antara pembolehubah. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan modal psikologi mempunyai pengaruh positif ke atas prestasi umum tetapi tidak ada pengaruh ke atas pencapaian akademik.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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Gender dan Pencapaian Akademik: Literatur Bersistematik

Nurain Nadia Azmi, Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir, dan Suzana Mohd. Hoesni

Volume : vol 2

Publication Date : 2018-12-22

Keywords : literatur bersistematik, gender, pencapaian akademik

Abstract : Gender berkait rapat dengan pembahagian peranan dan kedudukan antara golongan lelaki dengan wanita dalam sesebuah masyarakat yang terhasil daripada proses sosialisasi dan budaya. Pencapaian akademik merupakan ujian kepercayaan kognitif yang digunakan secara meluas untuk mengukur atau menganalisis keupayaan matematik, sains dan pemahaman individu dan ia seringkali dikaitkan dengan pencapaian keputusan peperiksaan. Kajian empirikal mendapati bahawa terdapat perbezaan pencapaian akademik mengikut gender. Oleh itu, literatur bersistematik ini bertujuan untuk meneliti perbezaan gender dari segi pencapaian akademik yang diperolehi daripada kajian lepas antara 2014-2018. Sciencedirect dan Springer telah digunakan sebagai pencarian artikel yang relevan. Selepas pencarian artikel dijalankan proses saringan dilakukan dan sebanyak 11 kajian telah dikenal pasti sebagai kajian yang sesuai untuk diulas. Analisis daripada artikel-artikel mendapati bahawa terdapat perbezaan gender dari aspek pencapaian akademik dan terdapat beberapa faktor yang menyumbang kepada perbezaan gender iaitu subjek, faktor umur, jenis sekolah, psikologi dan rakan sebaya. Limitasi literatur bersistematik dan implikasi turut dinyatakan.

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The editors and publisher of Journal of Psychology and Social Health have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views, and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors or its publisher. Journal of Psychology and Social Health, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising there from.

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